Stem cells are undifferentiated, or “blank,” cells. This means they’re capable of developing into cells that serve numerous functions in different parts of the body. Most cells in the body are differentiated cells. These cells can only serve a specific purpose in a particular organ. For example, red blood cells are specifically designed to carry oxygen through the blood
Stem cells are cells that haven’t differentiated yet. They have the ability to divide and make an indefinite number of copies of themselves. Other cells in the body can only replicate a limited number of times before they begin to break down. When a stem cell divides, it can either remain a stem cell or turn into a differentiated cell, such as a muscle cell or a red blood cell. Since stem cells have the ability to turn into various other types of cells, scientists believe that they can be useful for treating and understanding diseases. Thus, stem cells have widened horizon of scope of research potential and therapies too.
Recently , Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems have gained increasing interest in drug discovery and tissue engineering due to their evident advantages in providing more physiologically relevant information and more predictive data for in vivo tests. The innovations and development in 3D culture systems for drug discovery over the past 5 years are also reviewed in the article, emphasizing the cellular response to different classes of anticancer drugs, focusing particularly on similarities and differences between 3D and 2D models across the field. The progression and advancement in the application of 3D cell cultures in cell-based biosensors .
3D cell culture is an in-vitro technique wherein the cells can grow in an artificially created environment. These environments closely resemble the architecture and functioning of the native tissue. 3D cell culture technique helps stimulate cell differentiation, proliferation, and migration by interacting with their three-dimensional surroundings as they would in the in-vivo environment. As 3D cell cultures can mimic the structure, activity, and microenvironment of the in-vivo tissues, this technique has varied applications in the fields of drug screening, regenerative medicine, stem cell therapies, cancer research and cell biology. The extracellular matrix in 3D cell cultures enables cell–cell communication by direct contact as in in-vivo environment by secreting cytokines and trophic factors. These factors are changed in a 2D environment that can significantly affect the cell–cell communication, which in turn can alter the cell morphology and proliferation. As 2D cultures cannot recapitulate the architecture and complex cellular matrices as in 3D cultures, this technique is gaining popularity in healthcare research sector. In addition, 3D cell cultures can provide results with improved efficiency and reduce the cost of overall R&D process.
Broadly, 3D cell culture techniques are classified as Scaffold-based or non-scaffold-based techniques.